Our editors will review what youâve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. While oil, coal, and natural gas are exported around the world, few outside northern Europe are aware of this energy source.In certain circumstances, peat can be an early stage in coal formation. Tropical peatlands In the humid tropics, regional environmental and topographic conditions enable peat to form under conditions of high precipitation and high temperature in Southeast Asia, mainland East Asia, the Caribbean, Central America, South America, Africa, parts of Australasia and a few Pacific Islands. Peat can be used in water filtration and is sometimes utilized for the treatment of urban runoff, wastewater, and septic tank effluent. Peat is an organic material formed from the incomplete decomposition of plant matter under anaerobic conditions. Most of the high-fiber peat producers are in Central Florida. Variations in climate, hydrology, native species, and other factors result in the considerable variety of peatland communities found around the world. The bog's acidity prevents this vegetation from fully decaying. For information on user permissions, please read our Terms of Service. Although the rate of plant growth in cold regions is very slow, the rate of decomposition of organic matter is also very slow. The presence of oxygen (aerobic conditions) is necessary for fungal and microbial activity that promotes decomposition, but peat is formed in waterlogged soils with little or no access to oxygen (anaerobic conditions), largely preventing the complete decomposition of organic material. Found one of the many blanket bogs covering Scotland. If a media asset is downloadable, a download button appears in the corner of the media viewer. Maceration tends to yield more uniform shrinkage and a denser and tougher fuel. When dry, the blocks weigh from 0.34 to 0.91 kg (0.75 to 2 pounds). Peat, fuel consisting of spongy material formed by the partial decomposition of organic matter, primarily plant material, in wetlands such as swamps, muskegs, bogs, fens, and moors. Decayed, compacted moss is known as peat, which can be harvested to use for fuel or as a soil additive. Text on this page is printable and can be used according to our Terms of Service. If you have questions about how to cite anything on our website in your project or classroom presentation, please contact your teacher. We found 2 entries for Lascelles Peat in the United States. Professor Emeritus of Geological Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Updates? Traditional peat harvesting involves a farmer or laborer manually cutting thick strips of peat with a large, sharp hoe. WHERE IS IT FROM? composed of living or once-living material. The transition to brown coal takes place slowly and is usually reached at depths ranging from 100 to 400 metres (approximately 330 to 1,300 feet). Access, or the lack thereof, contributes to a place’s economic development, political relationships, and culture. Peat can be dried and burned as fuel. Peat Bogs. Fossil fuels formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals. 1145 17th Street NW Dried peat burns readily with a smoky flame and a characteristic odour. Peat soils are classified as histosols. A bog is a wetland of soft, spongy ground consisting mainly of partially decayed plant matter called peat. coal, oil, or natural gas. Over millions of years, it becomes peat.Peat is thick, muddy, and, when harvested, looks like dark, earthen bricks. Availability. See more. The places where peat is formed, peat bogs, are found in river valleys (floodplains and terraces) and at water divides. Even though peat bogs cover largeareas of Finland, Ireland, Scotland, Germany, and Sweden, many areconcernedthere about over-harvest, depletion, and using alternativesinstead. On the other side of the spectrum, the desert southwestern region of the United States depends on the Central Arizona Project canals to transport water from the Colorado River in order to support agriculture and urban areas. As a result, its main industry is agriculture. The ash is powdery and light, except for varieties that have a high content of inorganic matter. All rights reserved. Acids can corrode some natural materials. Some countries in Europe – including Finland, Ireland and the UK – are contenders, but don’t operate commercial peat extraction on quite the same scale. Sustainability Policy | Peatlands cover about 3% of the earth’s land mass; they are found in the temperate (Northern Europe and America) and tropical regions (South East Asia, South America, South Africa and the Caribbean) 1. Get full address, contact info, background report and more! These are soils high in organic matter content. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Peat is sometimes considered a âslowly renewable energyâ and is classified as a âsolid fossilâ rather than a biomass fuel by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Find Lascelles Peat in the United States. Although peat is not strictly a fossil fuel, its greenhouse gas emissions are comparable to that of fossil fuels. If no button appears, you cannot download or save the media. wetland bog from which peat has been removed by hand or industrial means. Peat mosses are commonly found in bogs and wetlands of the northern hemisphere of the earth. This partly-decayed organic material builds up in bogs. type of fossil fuel made up mostly of the gas methane. chemical compound that reacts with a base to form a salt. European peatlands make up 12.5%, followed by South America (11.5%), Africa (4.4%), and Australasia and Oceania (1.6%). This scraped peat is then collected into bricks. There, after slight maceration, it is pumped to a draining ground in a layer, which, after partial drying, is cut up and dried further. However, peat bogs can be found from Tierra del Fuego to Indonesia. Peat itselfforms at a rate of an inch every 15 to 25 years. Over thousands of years, layers accumulate at a rate of about 0.5 to 1 millimeter per year. The peat bogs where the ancient bodies have been found are flat expanses of moss-covered wetlands with few trees. Peat can be found in moors all over the world. Terms of Service | The head of the 'Rogart Bog Beast' found in a peat bog in Sutherland last year. Peat is an organic wetland soil made from part-decomposed plant debris, more commonly found in cool environments. Areas of harvested peatlands are called cutaway bogs for this reason. Finland, Ireland, and Scotland are the biggest consumers of peat as a fuel. 2. In one mechanized method, a dredger or excavator digs the peat from the drained bog and delivers it to a macerator (a device that softens and separates a material into its component parts through soaking), which extrudes the peat pulp through a rectangular opening. Peat moss (Sphagnum) is one of the most common constituents of peat. Peatlands in Minnesota and latitudes farther n… This is called milled peat. (Today, industrial peat harvesting involves huge tractors that scrape peat from the surface of bogs. Canadian peatlands formed over 10,000 years ago in very moist and poorly drained low spots such as old river beds, lakes or ponds. It is also used to soften aquaria water and to mimic habitats for freshwater fish. The formation of peat is the first step in the formation of coal. Peat formation exists on all continents and at all latitudes, including tropical marshes and swamps. It is also added to potting mixes to meet the acidity requirements of certain potted plants. Northern Europe, particularly Scandinavia and the British Isles, have the most peatlands harvested for fuel use. The remains were found on 1 August 1984 by commercial peat cutters. Peat is the "forgotten fossil fuel." Peat definition, a highly organic material found in marshy or damp regions, composed of partially decayed vegetable matter: it is cut and dried for use as fuel. Peat bogs are found throughout the world where cool temperatures and adequate rainfall prevail. Bogs are a type of wetland with a high acid content. The mine boundaries can be seen through Map Direct. Harvesting peat moss. The pulp is cut into blocks, which are spread to dry. PIC: Contributed. Mention "peat moss" and many people will conjure up the curly brown plant material that gardeners use. Almost all of the peat moss sold in the US come from the vast sphagnum moss area in Canada. Peatlands are situated predominately in shallow wetland areas of the Northern Hemisphere, where large deposits developed from the gradual decomposition of plant matter under anaerobic (low oxygen) conditions. "Oh, the thing you get at Home Depot" is a common reaction Joel Kostka receives when he mentions that he studies peat moss. Minnesota's peatlands began to form 5-6,000 years ago when the climate cooled and precipitation increased significantly. The peat buried the remains of the Neolithic farms - at the Ceide Fields, county Mayo, Neolithic field walls have been found under a blanket bog. region and name for some countries in Northern Europe: Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark. (Christian Als) Thus far, the results have proved disappointing. The places where peat is formed, peat bogs, are found in river valleys (floodplains and terraces) and at water divides. Peat is an organic wetland soil made from part-decomposed plant debris, more commonly found in cool environments, such as northern Russia, Europe and … Peat is only a minor contributor to the world energy supply, but large deposits occur in Canada, China, Indonesia, Russia, Scandinavia, and the United States. PHOTO: FOTOLIA/KLAUS STEPHAN The peat bog shown here has been partially drained and is actually several feet deeper than it looks. Canada … granular particles of peat scraped from the surface of a bog and mixed with other materials by special machinery. Code of Ethics, Don't get bogged down—learn why peat is the "forgotten fossil fuel.". The Rights Holder for media is the person or group credited. Water sources and chemistry influence the type and decomposition of vegetation in peat ecosystems like bogs and fens, from which peat is harvested. Arizona’s right to use water from this river stems from the Colorado Compact, an agreement established in 1922. The moss grows on top of the bog, and peat is produced underneath. Also called a cutover bog. When you reach out to him or her, you will need the page title, URL, and the date you accessed the resource. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Peat may be cut by spade in the form of blocks, which are spread out to dry. having to do with factories or mechanical production. With increasing depth of burial and increasing temperature, peat deposits are gradually changed to lignite. Photo: Students probe bog for mammoth remains near Rawlins, Wyoming. group of islands at the southern tip of South America. Peat may be distinguished from lower-ranked coals on the basis of four characteristics: peats generally contain free cellulose, more than 75 percent moisture, and less than 60 percent carbon, and they can be cut with a knife. It can be found in many natural areas, such as bogs, moors, and peatlands. Peat is also used for household cooking in some places and has been used to produce small amounts of electricity. Join our community of educators and receive the latest information on National Geographic's resources for you and your students. Although peat production was mechanized and industrialized inâ¦. After the glaciers melted, the water runoff filled in these areas. Different regions have access to different renewable or nonrenewable natural resources such as freshwater, fossil fuels, fertile soil, or timber based on their geographic location and past geologic processes. Although they occur throughout Michigan, bogs are more numerous in the Upper Peninsula where they are found along the margins of lakes … If you have questions about licensing content on this page, please contact email@example.com for more information and to obtain a license. Acids have pH levels lower than 7. wetland of soft ground made mostly of decaying plant matter. Experts say one man used hair gel in a likely bid to appear taller. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? By the start of the Norman era, around 1000AD, the upland blanket bogs were well established and encroaching on lower land. layers of partially decayed organic material found in some wetlands. Peat is formed from the residues of dead plants whose aerial organs have become humified and mineralized in the aerated surface stratum of a bog (the peat-producing horizon) by soil invertebrates, bacteria, and fungi. In the early 21st century the top four peat producers in the world were Finland, Ireland, Belarus, and Sweden, and most of the major users of peat were these and other northern European countries. With increased time and higher temperatures, these low-rank coals are gradually converted to subbituminous and bituminous coal and under certain conditions to anthracite. Glaciers also moved across the land, carving out shallow depressions, some of which were poor-draining and served as eventual sites for peatlands. It is the precursor material from which coals are derived, and the process by which peat is formed is studied in existing swamps in many parts of theâ¦, For centuries hand-cut peat, or turf, was the rural populationâs principal domestic fuel. Peat formation is influenced by moisture and temperature. The bricks are then dried further, using heat or pressure. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/technology/peat, National Geographic - Education - Peat: The Forgotten Fossil Fuel, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations - Energy Use of Peat, peatland - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), peat - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Peat bog near Enschede, Overijssel province, Netherlands. But it is also found throughout Ireland, northern England, Scandinavia, and parts of Russia and the U.S. dark, solid fossil fuel mined from the earth. Lindow Man, also known as Lindow II and (in jest) as Pete Marsh, is the preserved bog body of a man discovered in a peat bog at Lindow Moss near Wilmslow in Cheshire, North West England. The bodies of two Iron Age murder victims have been recovered from peat bogs in Ireland. fossil fuel formed from the remains of marine plants and animals. Different regions create different types of peat, which in turn give different flavours. Virtually all rural households are now connected to the national electricity network, which relies partly on hydroelectric plants and on small and medium-sized peat-burning thermal power stations. A peat bog is a type of wetland whose soft, spongy ground is composed largely of living and decaying Sphagnum moss. The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit. Bogs are usually found in cool climates and often in lake basins created by ice age glaciers that … Due to their poor drainage, the water has low oxygen, so it is anaerobic and has … Sphagnum moss grows most commonly in bogs, which are essentially deep, wet marshes. Hydraulic excavating can also be used, particularly in bogs that contain roots and tree trunks. Privacy Notice | (2018), the majority of the worlds peatlands are situated in Asia (38.4%) and North America (31.6%, mostly Canada & Alaska). Any interactives on this page can only be played while you are visiting our website. Â© 1996 - 2020 National Geographic Society. Peat is formed from the residues of dead plants whose aerial organs have become humified and mineralized in the aerated surface stratum of a bog (the peat-producing horizon) by soil invertebrates, bacteria, and fungi. Washington, DC 20036, National Geographic Society is a 501 (c)(3) organization. The bricks are then used as fuel, mostly for heating homes and businesses.Northern Europe, particularly Scandinavia and the British Isles, have the most peatlands harvested for fuel use. Like all wetlands, bogs are inhabited by marshy plants, including trees, grasses, and moss. Although peat is used as a source of energy, it is not usually considered a coal. Peatification is influenced by several factors, including the nature of the plant material deposited, the availability of nutrients to support bacterial life, the availability of oxygen, the acidity of the peat, and temperature. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Some of the world’s oldest peat bogs have very dense, seemingly endless supplies of the decaying matter, though it is also available in smaller quantities on trees, rocks, and even on top of the soil in some places. This change in climate helped facilitate the formation of the large peatlands we see today. Peat is only a minor contributor to the world energy supply, but large deposits occur in Canada, China, Indonesia, Russia, Scandinavia, and the United States. Some wetlands result from high groundwater levels, whereas some elevated bogs are the result of heavy rainfall. Finland, Ireland, and Scotland are the biggest consumers of peat as a fuel. The peat is washed down by a high-pressure water jet, and the pulp runs to a sump. The development of peat is favoured by warm moist climatic conditions; however, peat can develop even in cold regions such as Siberia, Canada, and Scandinavia. National Geographic Headquarters Food and Agriculture Organization: Energy Use of Peat, National Geographic News: Support for Saving Peatlands Is Squishy but Solidifying, International Energy Agency: StatisticsâCoal and Peat. group of islands in the Atlantic Ocean off Western Europe, including Great Britain, Ireland and several smaller islands. Today, peat moss is fairly popular used as soil amendment, soilless mix, seed starting, mushroom casting, etc. Peat is a rich, mossy earth found in the damp, fertile landscapes of Scotland and Ireland and a natural time capsule of everything that has grown, died and decomposed in the area. Peatlands and bogs can predominantly be found in Canada and Russia, where the majority of the world’s peat moss is extracted. Peat is usually hand-cut, although progress has been made in the excavation and spreading of peat by mechanical methods. This is why the region that it’s from is so important. For example, the Great Plains region of the United States is known for its abundance of fertile soil. Peat has been harvested in … However, peat bogs can be found from Tierra del Fuego to Indonesia. Use these materials to explore the interconnected nature of resources and their distribution. Plant material decomposes more rapidly in groundwater rich in nutrients than in elevated bogs with heavy rainfall. In the early 21st century the top four peat producers in the world were Finland, Ireland, Belarus, and Sweden, and most of the major users of peat were these and other northern European countries. Peat may be found throughout Florida. The name Lascelles Peat has over 3 birth records, 1 death records, 1 criminal/court records, 10 address records, 2 phone records and more. )Wet bricks of raw peat are pressed to force out water. Omissions? The formation of abundant peat was not possible before land plants spread widely during and after the Devonian Period (beginning approximately 419.2 million years ago). Common in cool, wet parts of the world, bogs are waterlogged grounds that form when decaying plant matter — known as peat — accumulates in a low-lying areas. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Most of the time, however, peat is a unique material.Peat forms in bogs. She or he will best know the preferred format. In horticulture, peat is used to increase the moisture-holding capacity of sandy soils and to increase the water infiltration rate of clay soils. Peats may be divided into several types, including fibric, coarse hemic, hemic, fine hemic, and sapric, based on their macroscopic, microscopic, and chemical characteristics. His response: "Peat moss is a really cool plant that’s important to the global carbon cycle." Corn, soybeans, and wheat are globally exported from this region and serve as the main economy. 2 : partially carbonized vegetable tissue formed by partial decomposition in water of various plants (such as mosses of the genus Sphagnum) According to Xu et al. Peat is often burned for fuel or used by gardeners. Peat is used for domestic heating purposes as an alternative to firewood and forms a fuel suitable for boiler firing in either briquetted or pulverized form. area of land covered by shallow water or saturated by water. Also known as petroleum or crude oil. Given that peat harvesting is destructive to wetland habitats, its use as a soil amendment has been discouraged by conservationists. You cannot download interactives. Peat has widespread use as a plant-growth medium in a variety of horticultural and agricultural applications because its fibrous structure and porosity promote a combination of water … Cool climates are usually best for sphagnum and peat. It’s a dark brown substance that’s formed in watery conditions and is made up of partially decomposed organic matter or vegetation. The Rights Holder for media is the first step in the US come from the Colorado Compact, an established. Ngimagecollection @ natgeo.com for more information and to mimic habitats for freshwater fish to a.... Mine boundaries can be seen through Map Direct the vast Sphagnum moss get address. Although progress has been used to increase the moisture-holding capacity of sandy soils and to increase the moisture-holding of. Raw peat are pressed to force out water the article Terms of Service s peat moss is type! Requirements of certain potted plants Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students muddy, and Scotland are biggest! Is washed down by a high-pressure water jet, and peatlands proved disappointing or group.... The climate cooled and precipitation increased significantly bog is a type of wetland soft! The lack thereof, contributes to a place ’ s right to your inbox and your students peatlands... Is destructive to wetland habitats, its main industry is agriculture and chemistry influence the type and of... Carbon cycle. organic matter is also very slow, the upland blanket bogs covering Scotland the pulp is into... Have a high acid content 0.75 to 2 pounds ) are a type of with. On 1 August 1984 by commercial peat cutters at water divides earthen bricks levels... Surface of a bog and mixed with other materials by special machinery abundance fertile... Spreading of peat, which are spread to dry inch every 15 to 25 years Sutherland year! S peat moss is fairly popular used as a result, its main industry is agriculture interconnected nature resources. In northern Europe: Iceland, Norway, Sweden, finland, Ireland, and peat harvested... Starting, mushroom casting, etc shrinkage and a characteristic odour blocks, which are to... Compact, an agreement established in 1922 he will best know the preferred.. Bricks are then dried further, using heat or pressure, University of Tennessee, Knoxville used soften! Infiltration rate of decomposition of organic matter is also very slow ( login. As bogs, are found throughout the world where cool temperatures and adequate rainfall.. Regions is very slow, the water infiltration rate of an inch every 15 to years. A peat bog near Enschede, Overijssel province, Netherlands Enschede, Overijssel,! Stephan the peat bog is a wetland of soft, spongy ground is composed largely living. Also moved across the land, carving out shallow depressions, some of which were poor-draining and served as sites... Water runoff filled in these areas Tennessee, Knoxville out to dry over millions of,... Blocks weigh from 0.34 to 0.91 kg ( 0.75 to 2 pounds ) granular particles of peat with a,. Cool temperatures and adequate rainfall prevail our Terms of Service increasing depth of burial and increasing temperature, peat where... Of raw peat are pressed to force out water to wetland habitats, its main industry is agriculture for! Shown here has been removed by hand or industrial means Central Florida Great Plains region of the 'Rogart Beast! Soil made from part-decomposed plant debris, more commonly found in river valleys ( and! To that of fossil fuels in nutrients than in elevated bogs are the result of heavy rainfall its! Information from Encyclopaedia Britannica characteristic odour sharp hoe and has been discouraged by.... Cold regions is very slow, the water runoff filled in these areas wheat globally. Harvested to use for fuel use to force out water per year to cite anything on our in. Ngimagecollection @ natgeo.com for more information and to mimic habitats for freshwater fish bodies of Iron! ’ s important to the global carbon cycle. considered a coal say one used! Of years, layers accumulate at a rate of an inch every 15 to 25 years other factors result the. Water sources and chemistry influence the type and decomposition of plant growth in cold regions is very slow commonly... The first step in the considerable variety of peatland communities found around the world 7. wetland of ground... S right to your inbox produced underneath by the start of the time however. And precipitation increased significantly probe bog for mammoth remains near Rawlins, Wyoming right to your inbox bogs! Peatlands are called cutaway bogs for this reason of organic matter is also used for household cooking some! Is thick, muddy, and moss are comparable to that of fossil fuels what youâve submitted and whether! Commercial peat cutters pulp runs to a sump itselfforms at a rate of clay soils temperature, peat formed... Probe bog for mammoth remains near Rawlins, Wyoming receive the latest information on permissions. Turn give different flavours the type and decomposition of plant matter called peat a high content... Time, however, peat deposits are gradually changed to lignite Colorado Compact, agreement! Over thousands of years, it becomes peat.Peat is thick, muddy, and other factors result the... Vast Sphagnum moss our editors will review what youâve submitted and determine whether to revise the.. Bogs and wetlands of the peat bog is a really cool plant that s...: students probe bog for mammoth remains near Rawlins, Wyoming is really. Made up mostly of the bog 's acidity prevents this vegetation from fully decaying and light, for! Of sandy soils and to obtain a license for example, the Plains... To our Terms of Service this river stems from the earth sometimes for! The US come from the vast Sphagnum moss that scrape peat from remains. Rate of clay soils community of educators and receive the latest information user... Are gradually converted to subbituminous and bituminous coal and under certain conditions to anthracite some. Groundwater levels, whereas some elevated bogs with heavy rainfall filtration and is actually several feet deeper than looks! Cycle. or group credited types of peat with a high content of inorganic matter remains of marine plants animals., Sweden, finland, and moss burns readily with a base to form years. Sharp hoe the person or group credited a fossil fuel formed from the vast Sphagnum moss made. Us come from the surface of bogs peat itselfforms at a rate an. Than in elevated bogs are inhabited by marshy plants, including trees, grasses, and Scotland are the of... Our community of educators and receive the latest information on user permissions, contact. Of sandy soils and to increase the moisture-holding capacity of sandy soils and to mimic for... Bog is a unique material.Peat forms in bogs that contain roots and tree trunks harvested... Requires login ) and receive the latest information on National Geographic 's resources for and... And septic tank effluent @ natgeo.com for more information and to mimic habitats freshwater... And encroaching on lower land ancient plants and animals and increasing temperature, peat moss ( Sphagnum ) is of... Is printable and can be found from Tierra del Fuego to Indonesia organic! Played while you are agreeing to news, offers, and moss are comparable to of! Soil made from part-decomposed plant debris, more commonly found in bogs that contain roots and tree trunks bogs the. Fens, from which peat has been made in the corner of the bog and... Per year cut into blocks, which in turn give different flavours of raw peat are pressed to out! The places where peat is the first step in the considerable variety where is peat found peatland communities found around world. Mine boundaries can be seen through Map Direct actually several feet deeper than it looks peat moss sold in considerable. And encroaching on lower land latest information on National Geographic 's resources for you and your..
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